It is now part of the United Kingdom, with England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
After rejecting independence in a 2014 referendum, Scotland was allowed to raise a portion of its own taxes with the option to set what is currently half the level of income tax.
The central government has powers over foreign, defence, immigration and broad economic policy.
A kingdom occupying the northern half of the island of Great Britain from the 9th century, Scotland's monarch took the crown of England through dynastic succession in 1603 and in 1707 the two countries formed the state of Great Britain.
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It has its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra.
Wallonia nearly derailed an EU-Canada trade deal last year.
Flanders has permanent representatives in several locations Europe, as well as New York and Pretoria.
In general, Scotland, with about 8 per cent of the UK's 66 million population, is a net beneficiary from the central budget.
Scotland has its own international soccer team and the Scottish government has offices in Brussels, Washington, Toronto and Beijing to promote its regional interests.