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Studies indicate that dating violence can happen to anyone, regardless of age, race, sexual orientation, socio-economic status or location of residence.

It happens in both adolescent and adult relationships.

Mutual Violent Control identifies violent exchanges in which both partners are violent and controlling.

It is the least common type of violence of the four in Johnson’s typology.

It includes a range of assaults, from pushing, shoving and grabbing to choking, burning and assaulting with a weapon.

Each of these acts could result in charges under the Criminal Code.

This includes assaults on partners who have been given “date rape” drugs such a Rohypnol (also known as roofies, roachies, La Rocha and The Forget Pill), G. B or gamma hydroxybutyrate (also known as Liquid Exctasy, Gib, Liquid E and Easy Lay), ketamine (also known as K, Ket and Special K) and MDMA — 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (also known as Ecstasy, XTC, X and Bean).

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Violence in these types of relationships is generally frequent and escalates to severe violence.

A study in New Brunswick estimated that dating violence may begin as early as age 13.

Physical Violence occurs when one partner uses physical force to control the other.

In contrast, severe violence includes acts for which the risk of permanent or serious injury is high.

According to a Canadian study, severe violence is relatively rare.